Sunflower as feed for animals
Sunflower (Helianthus annum L.). The sunflower is basically an oilseed crop, but it is often grown for silage, especially in the Northern parts, at least — for green fodder.
Feed use is also obtained from processing of seeds to oil meal and cake, in which the crude protein content reaches 40 %. Fresh, preferably in a mixture with straw, cattle and sheep eat the remaining seeds after threshing baskets (50…60% yield). Share of baskets in the diets, however, should be limited. You can use them to produce having pleasant taste and smell, well eat flour, silaged in pure form and in mixtures with other forages. Flour feed mixed with concentrates in a dry and steamed form. From 1 ton of dry matter of stems and husks of sunflower get about 160 kg of fodder yeast. Sunflower is a good melliferous plant.
Green mass of sunflower seeds contains a lot of water, relatively little protein. Eating animals it should be used. The palatability of green mass is increased after short wilting.
For fodder, sow the sunflower seeds of different varieties. The different height of plants (up to 3…4 m) and large (diameter up to 40 cm) baskets varieties the yield of green mass reaches up to 100 t/ha. Seeds can be obtained only in winegrowing. Significantly lower yields of green mass yield dwarf varieties.
Sunflower drought tolerant than corn requires less soil, but grows poorly in clayey, sandy, saline soils, and areas with shallow groundwater.
Shoots tolerate frosts down to -8 °C; adult plants to -2…-3 °C. In cloudy weather and shading other plants in mixed crops the yield of green mass of sunflower decreases, plants develop smaller leaves.
For silage and green fodder sunflower sown immediately after the sowing of early spring crops, more than usual ordinary way, the norm of sowing 18…20 kg/ha. In the intermediate crops, the seeding rate is increased to 40 kg/ha. Sowing is carried out with row spacing of 30 and 45 cm, including using grain drills. Most of the sunflower forage are sown in mixtures with peas, oats, vetch, lupine, safflower. Legumes can be sown on germination of sunflower. He mostly plays the role of supporting the plants, so sowing rate in mixtures with legumes usually does not exceed 6 kg/ha. In the mixture with other cultures she is 10…12 kg/ha.
Green fodder sunflower is harvested in the early education of the basket before flowering, silage from start to full bloom, very late varieties — from the phase of budding. The maximum yield of green mass is in the phase of full flowering. Before the formation of the baskets, the plants grow slowly. Baskets bloom in 18 to 30 days after emergence. Mowing ripeness green fodder sunflower reaches 60…70 days of the growing season on 30 to 50 days earlier than corn. Harvesting it for feed purposes needs to be completed before the frost.
With humidity of 30 baskets threshed…35 % less and they can be stored in ricks, putting in layers of straw. On the bottom layer of straw thickness of 50…70 cm layer of the stack of baskets 10…15 cm, then alternate layers of straw 10…15 cm and baskets — about 15 cm Straw absorbs the water from the baskets. For the best storage baskets sprinkled with salt (2…3 kg/t). Complete skyrda a layer of straw thickness of 1…1.5 m. In the Northern areas of cultivation of sunflower seeds the threshed baskets humidity 60…70 %, so they can be silaged in pure form or mixed with vegetable waste, green mass of stubble crops, a chopped straw.
Amaranth (Amaranthus L.). Some households have started to cultivate food amaranth, represented by different species. This is a plant of the family Amaranthaceae. The yield of green mass of amaranth reaches 40…150 t/ha on the leaves account for 25…35 %. 1 kg of this mass contains about 0.1 to food. units
Green amaranth mass well eat pigs, poultry, cattle. In a mixture of green mass of corn can make good silage. The disadvantage is the accumulation of nitrates in introducing high doses of nitrogen fertilizers and for thickening of crops.
Place the amaranth on clean fields from weeds, which conducted deep primary tillage. Under the previous culture, it is advisable to apply manure (30 to 40 t/ha).
Before sowing, well-developed soil rolled down. Sowing is carried out at the same time as the maize. Sowing depth of seeds in moist soil about 1…2 cm, to a dry — up to 3…4 cm seeding rate seeds 300…500 g/ha, it provides the optimum density of standing — 70…150 plants per 1 m2. Since seeds are small (weight of 1000 seeds of 0.4…0.8 g), to ensure uniform sowing before sowing them mixed with ballast materials using, for example, on a hectare seeding rate of 5 kg of granulated superphosphate, or 10 kg of sieved river sand, or 2 kg of sieved peat crumb. To sow amaranth better vegetable planters with row spacing of 70 cm 30…
Care of crops is the destruction of soil crust, conducting inter-row treatments in the wide-row crops. Clean the amaranth 100…110 days after emergence